The United States is the largest consumer market in the world, with a GDP of $20 trillion and a population of 325 million. More than a quarter of worldwide home consumption is accounted for by U.S. household expenditure, and free trade agreements with more than 20 nations have opened the market to hundreds of millions of new customers. Overall, the United States is one of the world’s top business destinations.
The United States, on the other hand, is a highly regulated and complicated place. DOL administers and enforces more than 175 federal employment laws, including recruiting, hiring, background checks, salary & benefits and workplace conduct and termination. Additionally, state and municipal regulations in the United States are generally more beneficial to employees than federal law.
Managers working across national borders will have a better grasp of the nuances of doing business in various jurisdictions. The fact that local employees are more aware of their rights and more willing to stand up for them than in earlier times (thanks to Google!) is also true. As a further factor, courts (and especially juries) in the United States are known to award damages to employees much surpassing those customary in most other jurisdictions in the United States of America.
Because of this, organisations wishing to set up shop in the United States will need to adhere to federal, state, and municipal employment laws and regulations.
An overview of employment law considerations for foreign corporations setting up operations in the United States is provided in the following paragraphs. We, of course, encourage you to consult with a lawyer to ensure that you are complying with all applicable federal, state, and local laws.
The Methods Applied in the Recruitment Process
Gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, and religion cannot be used as criteria in the employment process, and employers must be open and honest about work requirements. ADA and comparable state regulations prevent employers from discriminating against candidates with disabilities who are otherwise qualified to do the job and require that companies fairly accommodate the unique requirements of handicapped applicants during the application process. In making employment decisions, hiring managers should be well-versed in legal (i.e. non-discriminatory) interviewing practises, such as looking at education, experience, and abilities relevant to the position. There are many questions that can lead to costly legal litigation and regulatory measures such as “Are you married?” or, “Are you Christian?” or “How old are you?”
To explain the position being offered, job descriptions should include information like “6-month contract” or “full-time work,” and include information like salary and benefits, job requirements and qualifications, and employment terms. As part of the application process, prospective employees should be made aware of any additional conditions that may apply, such as a drug test or availability to work overtime.
Last but not least, regulations governing privacy cover the entire job cycle, from application to termination. The laws governing background checks during the recruiting process are governed by both state and federal regulations. To comply with these rules, employers must acquire consent from candidates/employees, as well as offer appropriate notices to those individuals.
Immigrant and non-immigrant visas for foreign nationals working in the United States are subject to constant change, which means that firms must adopt a range of tactics to meet their employment needs.
While there are a variety of nonimmigrant visas available to foreign workers, such as those allowing business travel and intracompany transfers in addition to specialty occupation visas, there are also immigrant visas that can result in permanent resident status, which is advantageous to both employers and employees.
A company’s immigration compliance should be a top focus, as visa eligibility, restrictions, processing timeframes, and rewards for accompanying family members differ by visa subclass.
Keeping an Eye on Your Employees
Most of the labour laws in the United States are aimed at preventing workers from being exploited, and federal and state governments work together to establish standards for things like pay, working hours, vacation time, pensions, and workplace safety. In addition to the employer-employee relationship, the law also governs the workplace in other ways, such as in cases of discrimination or harassment between employees.
The amount of overtime that employees can request and perform is regulated by federal and (often stricter) state regulations, which set minimum wage and overtime payment obligations. Correct interpretation of the law is essential to prevent any regulatory and/or civil liability for “white collar” workers, contractors, and others.
Harassment and Discrimination
Race, colour, religion, sex, national origin, age (for those over 40), handicap, or genetic information cannot be used to discriminate against employees or candidates. Anti-discrimination legislation in most of the 50 states are either identical to federal law or go farther in protecting employees, such as laws prohibiting political affiliation or sexual orientation from being used as a reason for discrimination.
The anti-discrimination categories are also protected by federal and state laws. As societal norms have evolved in the workplace, sexual harassment has become a more pressing issue for organisations to keep an eye on.
For example, employees are protected under the law against being harassed by coworkers or even their own customers or suppliers.
If an employer wants to avoid being held liable for allegations of harassment, they should have a policy in place that makes it clear what constitutes harassment and what actions can be taken in response to complaints of harassment.
Let’s not get bogged down in the details
Federally mandated paid vacation, sick leave, and maternity/paternity leave are not well supported in the United States. The state or municipality may have the power to regulate paid leave if given in any or all of these ways. Thirteen states and the District of Columbia have passed laws requiring paid sick leave, and cities such as San Francisco, Seattle, Chicago, Philadelphia, and New York are also requiring paid sick leave for their employees.
There are a number of federal and state laws in the United States that oblige businesses to provide their employees with unpaid leave if they ask for it. Leaves of absence for pregnancy, childbirth, military service, disability, jury duty, voting, and religious observance are all examples of leave of absences that can be granted.
Employees’ rights to paid and unpaid leave, as well as the steps they must take to request it, should be clearly spelled out in company policy.
Benefits for Employees
Federal Medicare benefits (health benefits for retired or active workers aged 65 or older and disabled persons), federal Social Security benefits (pension for retired workers), and unemployment compensation are mandated by law in the United States for all companies. Benefit costs for Medicare and Social Security are shared by both employers and employees.
In addition to health, dental, and vision insurance, life insurance, and disability income plans, many U.S. firms also offer pension plans (including 401(k)s). In most cases, the employer and employee share the expense of these policies.
But while employers aren’t required to offer group health plans to their employees under the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the legislation imposes fines on corporations that don’t provide their workers with affordable healthcare coverage.
A Safe Workplace
Since its implementation in 1970, OSHA has been tasked with ensuring “safe and healthful working conditions” for “every working man and woman in the Nation.” Approximately half of the states in the United States have passed their own workplace safety and health laws.
A workplace must be free of “known dangers that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm” in order to be covered by OSHA. This includes construction, agriculture, and general industry.
During working hours, OSHA has the power to inspect workplaces, and employers can ask for a search warrant before giving entry. A facility tour is preceded by and followed by a discussion with the inspectors to help employers determine the scope of the inspection and the nature of any suspected violations.
By sending a certified letter notification, OSHA inspectors provide companies the opportunity to either take corrective action or challenge the citation. OSHA fines are based on the severity of the violation.
Every state mandates that companies offer workers’ compensation to employees who are injured while on the job. Depending on the state, employers may be required to carry insurance or may choose to self-insure, with premiums varying according to the number of employees, the nature of their work, and the degree of risk.
Unions for the benefit of workers
It was established by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) that workers have the right to engage in collective activity, such as forming or joining unions. Unionized workers comprise less than 15% of the workforce in the United States, and less than 10% of private sector workers are unionised. However, the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) regulates what employers can and cannot do when it comes to responding to employee collective activity and when it comes to bargaining with unions. Employers are prohibited from retaliating against non-unionized workers who organise and engage in collective bargaining on issues like wages, working hours, or working conditions.
Privacy and Data Protection for Employees
Surveillance of employee communications is easy for many companies, especially those in “white collar” work environments, but this monitoring is governed by government rules designed to safeguard the privacy of employees. Employers are obligated to warn their employees about monitoring and acquire their consent under most jurisdictions’ surveillance restrictions, which vary greatly. It is common practise for employers to seek employee agreement to monitor their electronic communications and activities through equipment use policies that say expressly that the corporation may do so. Check and adhere to local rules and regulations in each location where workers work or where corporate systems or electronic devices are housed if your company operates in more than one jurisdiction
A Non-Compete Clause
There are a few states that do not allow non-compete agreements for employees. If a company wants to require an employee to sign a noncompete agreement, the employee might sue the employer.
Generally, states that allow employee noncompete agreements will not enforce an agreement that severely restricts a worker’s ability to find a new employment in the future. In order for an employee non-compete agreement to be enforced, it must be restricted in the following ways:
Time. Noncompete agreements are more likely to be enforced if the time period for forbidden competition is short.
Area of the Earth. The likelihood of enforcing a noncompete agreement increases with the size of the geographical area covered by the prohibition on competing. The geographic scope of the industry and the company will have a significant impact on the selection of the location.
Competition is defined as a battle. Noncompetition agreements are more likely to be implemented if the forbidden competition is limited in scope.
Employees are more likely to be held to a one-year noncompete agreement if it forbids them from working for one of three direct competitors in the same state, rather than a three-year noncompete agreement.
The act of quitting or resigning
As a result of the “at-will” hiring paradigm prevalent in the United States, the process of firing an employee is comparatively simple in comparison to other countries. There is a possibility that employees who have been terminated under anti-discrimination laws and regulations will be able to bring a lawsuit against their former employers. Employee terminations are the root of more than 80% of all employment-related lawsuits in the United States.
If an employer is forced to fire an employee, the best approach is to be fair and open. As soon as an employee is hired, expectations of behaviour and performance should be clearly stated. Any flaws should be documented thoroughly and conveyed to the individual. There isn’t much point in outlining how to manage a real termination because it is so situation- and location-specific.
If you’re planning to open a business in the United States, our best advice is to “be fair and transparent.”
Consult with legal counsel to ensure that all applicable federal, state, and local rules and regulations, as well as industry-specific restrictions, are met.
To be fully prepared, create a complete human resources infrastructure that clearly outlines each employee’s obligations, legal rights, and available redress options.
Prepare thoroughly by ensuring that CEOs, managers, and supervisors are well-versed in the laws governing employment concerns (e.g. anti-discrimination, workplace safety).
Thanks to ADA For Web for providing valuable input in this article.